Thursday, September 3, 2020

Psychoanalysis Of Hamlet And Oedipus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Analysis Of Hamlet And Oedipus - Essay Example Sigmund Freud makes reference to that the stifled fascination may cause a type of psychodrama. This psychodrama has influenced Hamlet to the point of losing his detects. Additionally, Hamlet had lost enthusiasm for his better half Ophelia showing that his sexual fascination had moved to his mom. Sigmund Freud featured that children pulled in to their moms don't look for affection from different individuals from the general public. They have a conviction that their mom is the best. Be that as it may, this doesn't occur deliberately. The oblivious psyche, which bears these contemplations, applies impact on the cognizant brain. Hamlet’s fixation on the issues encompassing his mother’s remarriage constrained him to leave Ophelia totally inciting her to end it all. The way that Hamlet displayed extraordinary resentment towards his mom who had hitched Claudius, rather than concentrating on the vengeance crucial, Freud to see the impacts of the Oedipus complex. Obviously, Sigm und Freud got analysis for his hypothesis of the Oedipus complex. Numerous researchers concentrated on directing analysis of the play after Freud related what had befallen Oedipus with the secrets encompassing the play Hamlet. The Oedipus complex is a subdued fascination in the oblivious brain. Nonetheless, there are examples when it gets excessively solid and uncovers itself. Young men are probably going to be envious of their dads as a result of the subdued fascination. As featured above, both Hamlet and Oedipus delineated practices that served to discover that they were casualties of the Oedipus complex.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Why You Should Avoid These Racial Terms

Why You Should Avoid These Racial Terms Ever wonder which term is the fitting one to utilize while portraying an individual from an ethnic minority gathering? How would you know whether you ought to allude to somebody as â€Å"black,† â€Å"African American,† â€Å"Afro American† or something different completely? Even better, in what manner would it be a good idea for you to continue when individuals from a similar ethnic gathering have various inclinations for what they’d like to be called? Let's assume you have three Mexican American companions. One needs to be called â€Å"Latino,† different needs to be called â€Å"Hispanic,† and another needs to be called â€Å"Chicano.† While some racial terms stay far from being obviously true, others are viewed as obsolete, injurious or both. Discover which racial names to maintain a strategic distance from when portraying individuals from an assortment of ethnic foundations. Why â€Å"Oriental† Is a No-No What’s the issue with utilizing the term â€Å"Oriental† to portray people of Asian drop? Normal grumblings about the term incorporate that it ought to be held for objects, for example, mats, and not individuals and that it’s old-fashioned much the same as utilizing â€Å"Negro† to depict an African American. Howard University Law Professor Frank H. Wu made the correlation in a 2009 New York Times piece about the province of New York restricting the utilization of â€Å"Oriental† on government structures and archives. Washington State passed a comparative boycott in 2002. â€Å"It’s related with a timespan when Asians had a subordinate status,† Professor Wu told the Times. He included that individuals interface the term to old generalizations of Asians and the period when the United States government passed rejection acts to shield Asian individuals from entering the nation. Given this, â€Å"For numerous Asian Americans, it’s not simply this term: It’s about much more†¦It’s about your authenticity to be here,† Wu said. In a similar piece, antiquarian Mae M. Ngai, creator of Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America, clarified that, while the term â€Å"Oriental† isn’t a slur, it’s never been generally utilized by individuals of Asian plunge to depict themselves. â€Å"I think it’s fallen into disapproval on the grounds that it’s what others call us. It’s just the East if you’re from some place else,† Ngai stated, alluding to â€Å"Oriental’s† meaning-â€Å"Eastern.† â€Å"It’s an Eurocentric name for us, which is the reason it’s wrong. You should call individuals by what (they) call themselves, not how they are arranged comparable to yourself.† Because of the historical backdrop of the term and the time it summons, it’s best to follow the leads of New York State and Washington State and erase the word â€Å"Oriental† from your vocabulary when portraying individuals. If all else fails, utilize the term Asian or Asian American. In any case, in the event that you are aware of someone’s explicit ethnic foundation, allude to them as Korean, Japanese American, Chinese Canadian, etc. â€Å"Indian† Is Confusing and Problematic While the term â€Å"Oriental† is generally disapproved of by Asians, the equivalent isn’t valid for the term â€Å"Indian† when used to depict Native Americans. Grant winning author Sherman Alexie, who is of Spokane and Coeur d’Alene family line, has no issue with the term. â€Å"Just consider Native American as the proper form and Indian as the easygoing one,† he told a Sadie Magazine questioner who requested that the best term use when alluding to America’s indigenous people groups. In addition to the fact that Alexie approves of the term â€Å"Indian,† he commented that â€Å"the just individual who’s going to pass judgment on you for saying ‘Indian’ is a non-Indian.† While numerous Native Americans do allude to one another as â€Å"Indians,† some article to the term since it is related with pilgrim Christopher Columbus, who confused the Caribbean islands with those of the Indian Ocean, which were known as the Indies. Because of the blunder, individuals indigenous to the Americas generally speaking were named â€Å"Indians.† Also hazardous is that many hold Columbus’ appearance into the New World liable for starting the oppression and devastation of Native Americans, so they don’t need to be known by a term that he’s credited with advancing. It’s significant, however, that the term â€Å"Indian† is far less dubious than the term â€Å"Oriental.† Not just haven’t states prohibited the term, there’s additionally an administration organization known as the Bureau of Indian Affairs, also the National Museum of the American Indian. On that note, the term â€Å"American Indian† is more adequate than essentially â€Å"Indian† on the grounds that, to some degree, it is less confounding. At the point when somebody alludes to â€Å"American Indians,† everybody realizes the individuals being referred to don’t hail from Asia however from the Americas. On the off chance that you’re worried about the sort of gathering you’ll get by utilizing the term â€Å"Indian,† consider saying â€Å"indigenous peoples,† â€Å"native peoples† or â€Å"First Nations† people groups. Be that as it may, the most shrewd activity is to allude to individuals by their particular family line. In this way, in the event that you realize a specific individual is Choctaw, Navajo, Lumbee, and so., available to come in to work him that as opposed to utilizing umbrella terms, for example, â€Å"American Indian† or â€Å"Native American.† Spanish Is Not the Catch-All Term for Spanish-Speaking Peoples Ever heard an individual alluded to as â€Å"Spanish† who isn’t from Spain however basically communicates in Spanish and has Latin American roots? In certain pieces of the nation, especially urban areas in the Midwest and on the East Coast, it’s ordinary to allude to any such individual as â€Å"Spanish.† Sure, the term doesn’t convey the stuff that terms, for example, â€Å"Oriental† or â€Å"Indian† do, yet it’s genuinely wrong. Also,â like the other termsâ covered, it irregularities various gatherings of individuals together under an umbrella classification. In reality, the term â€Å"Spanish† is very explicit. It alludes to individuals from Spain. Be that as it may, throughout the years, the term has been utilized reciprocally with the different people groups from Latin Americaâ that the Spanish colonized. Due to intermixing, a large number of the colonized people groups from Latin America do have Spanish lineage, yet that’s just a piece of their racial cosmetics. Numerous likewise have indigenous progenitors and, because of the slave exchange, African parentage also. To call individuals from Panama, Ecuador, El Salvador, Cuba, etc as â€Å"Spanish† is to delete enormous wraps of their racial foundations. The term basically assigns individuals who are multicultural as one thing-European. It bodes well to allude to every single Spanish-speaker as â€Å"Spanish† as it doesâ to allude to every English speaker as â€Å"English.† Shaded Is Outdated however Continues to Pop up Today Think just octogenarians use terms, for example, â€Å"colored† to describe African Americans? Reconsider. When Barack Obamaâ was chose president in November 2008, actress Lindsay Lohanâ expressed her bliss about the occasion byâ remarkingâ to â€Å"Access Hollywood,† â€Å"It’s an astonishing inclination. It’s our first, you know, shaded president.† What's more, Lohan’s not by any means the only youngster in the open eye to utilize the term. Julie Stoffer, one of the houseguests included on MTV’s â€Å"The Real World: New Orleans,† likewise caused a stir when sheâ referredâ to African Americans as â€Å"colored.† More recently, Jesse Jamesâ alleged fancy woman Michelle Bombshell McGee looked to defuse bits of gossip that shes a racial oppressor byâ remarking, I make a repulsive bigot Nazi. I have too kaleidoscopic companions. What’s to clarify for these indiscretions? For a certain something, â€Å"colored† is a term that never totally left American culture. One of the most conspicuous promotion bunches for African Americans utilizes the term in its name-the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. There’s likewise the fame of the more present day (and proper) term â€Å"people of color.† Some individuals may think it’s alright to just abbreviate that expression to â€Å"colored,† yet they’re mixed up. Like â€Å"Oriental,† â€Å"colored† harkens back to a time of rejection, a period when Jim Crowâ was in full power, and blacks utilized drinking fountains stamped â€Å"colored† and sat in the â€Å"colored† areas of transports, sea shores, and eateries. So, the term works up agonizing recollections. Today, the terms â€Å"African American† and â€Å"black† are the most satisfactory to utilize while portraying people of African drop. All things considered, a portion of these people may lean toward â€Å"black† over â€Å"African American† and the other way around. â€Å"African American† is viewed as more formal than â€Å"black,† so if you’re in an expert setting, decide in favor of alert and utilize the previous. Obviously, you can likewise pose the people in inquiry which term they like. You may likewise experience settlers of African plummet who wish to be perceived by their countries. Accordingly, they want to be called Haitian-American, Jamaican-American, Belizean, Trinidadian, Ugandan or Ghanaian-American, instead of basically â€Å"black.† truth be told, for the 2010 Census, there was aâ movementâ to haveâ black immigrantsâ write in their nations of starting point as opposed to be known by and large a

Friday, August 21, 2020

Internally Displaced Person free essay sample

The thought and the wonder of inner dislodging are not later. As indicated by United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) ,the Greek government contended to the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in 1949 that individuals uprooted inside by war ought to have a similar access to universal guide as displaced people, regardless of whether they didn't require global insurance. India and Pakistan rehashed this contention after parcel. Acknowledgment of inward removal rose step by step through the late 1980s and got noticeable on the universal plan during the 1990s. The main explanations behind this consideration were the developing number of contentions causing inside dislodging after the finish of the Cold War and an inexorably severe worldwide relocation system. In spite of the fact that the issue of inside relocation has increased universal noticeable quality during the most recent fifteen years, a solitary meaning of the term stays to be settled upon. inside dislodged people are people or gatherings of people who have been constrained or obliged to escape or to leave their homes or places of ongoing living arrangement, specifically because of or so as to maintain a strategic distance from the impacts of equipped clash, circumstances of summed up viciousness, infringement of human rights or common or human-made catastrophes, and who have not crossed a globally perceived State fringe. We will compose a custom exposition test on Inside Displaced Person or then again any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page 1 While the above burdens two significant components of inner uprooting it is essential to take note of that as opposed to an exacting definition, the Guiding Principles offer â€Å"a spellbinding distinguishing proof of the class of people whose necessities are the worry of the Guiding Principles†. Along these lines, the record â€Å"intentionally directs toward adaptability as opposed to legitimate accuracy as the words â€Å"in particular† show that the rundown of purposes behind dislodging isn't comprehensive. Be that as it may, as Erin Mooney has called attention to, â€Å"global measurements on interior removal for the most part check just IDPs evacuated by strife and human rights infringement. In addition, an ongoing report has suggested that the IDP idea ought to be characterized considerably more barely, to be constrained to people dislodged by savagery. † Thus, regardless of the non-thorough reasons of interior dislodging, many consider IDPs as the individuals who might be characterized as exiles if they somehow managed to cross a universal outskirt consequently the term displaced people in everything except name is regularly applied to IDPs. Joined Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs(OCHA 1999:6) Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement: http://www. creek. edu/idp 1 2 Concept of inside dislodged people (IDPs) : When regular people cross a global wilderness into a second state with an end goal to get away from abuse, they are commonly given nouri shment and asylum by the host nation, ensured by worldwide laws and lawfully are named exiles. Others in comparable conditions however who, out of the blue, stay in their own states become IDPs with scarcely any, of the shields and help stood to outcasts. They stay under the „protection? of frequently adversarial governments or prey to revolt volunteer armies. 3 They are people or gatherings of individuals who have been compelled to escape their homes to get away from outfitted clash, summed up brutality and human rights manhandles. A large number of different regular people who have endure catastrophic events, for example, floods are additionally commonly named IDPs. Who is an inside uprooted individual? IDP) There is no legitimate definition as there is for an exile. Be that as it may, a United Nations report, Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement utilizes the definition: Internally dislodged people are people or gatherings of people who have been constrained or obliged to escape or to leave their homes or places of ongoing living arrangement, specifically becaus e of or so as to stay away from the impacts of equipped clash, circumstances of summed up brutality, infringement of human rights or regular or human-made catastrophes, and who have not crossed a universally perceived State outskirt. 4 Components of the IDP definition The definition gave by the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement features two components: 3 4 www. unhcr. organization/internallydisplacedpeople United Nations report of Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Introduction, Para 2 3 1) The coercive or in any case automatic character of development. 2) The way that such development happens inside national outskirts. Evacuee versus IDPs Both gatherings frequently leave their homes for comparative reasons. Regular citizens are perceived as „refugees? hen they cross a universal wilderness to look for haven in another nation. The inside dislodged, for reasons unknown, stay in their own states. Recently showed up outcasts ordinarily get nourishment, cover an d a position of security from the host nation. An all around characterized assortment of global laws and shows ensures them. The UN displaced person office and other philanthropic associations work inside this legitimate structure to assist outcasts with restarting their lives in another state or in the end get back. Then again, the inside uprooted regularly face a progressively troublesome future. They might be caught in a continuous inner clash. The residential government, which may see the removed individuals as „enemies of the state,? holds extreme control of their destiny. There are no particular worldwide lawful instruments covering the inside dislodged, and general understandings, for example, the Geneva Conventions are regularly hard to apply. Contributors are now and again reluctant to meddle in inside clashes or offer continued help. There has been some discussion encompassing whether IDPs and exiles ought to be gathered as a solitary class, and subsequently whether the difficulties brought about by them ought to be dealt with by the equivalent institution(s). This contention was first brought up in the pages of 1998 and 1999 releases of Forced Migration Review (FMR) 5 . Barutciski contended that the endeavors by some human rights backers to stretch out the security of displaced people to the 5 http://www. creek. edu/idp,Barutciski 1998 and 1999, Bennett 1999, Kingsley-Nyinah 1999, Rutinwa 1999, Vincent 1999 4 nternally dislodged might be counter-beneficial, as it is impeding to the conventional haven choice and might expand regulation. The conversation was revived in 2001, when the then US Ambassador to the UN, Richard Holbrooke, following a visit to Angola, contended that the bureaucratic differentiation among displaced people and IDPs was contrarily influencing the lives of a large number of IDPs. 6 Causes of inside removal: Armed clashes: International equipped †it ought to be noticed that wars of national freedom have been named universal furnished clashes â€non-worldwide clashes Circumstances of savagery, missing the mark concerning equipped clashes: Many IDPs live in circumstances of inward pressures or aggravations. The terms â€Å"internal pressures and disturbances† allude to circumstances which miss the mark regarding furnished clash, yet include the utilization of power and other abusive measures via Training on the Protection of IDPs. Instances of strains and unsettling influences incorporate uproars, for example, shows without a purposeful arrangement from the beginning, segregated irregular demonstrations of viciousness, rather than military activities completed by military or furnished gatherings, and rough ethnic onflicts not adding up to full equipped clash. Infringement of human rights: They incorporate government offenses of the rights ensured by national, provincial and universal human rights law, and acts and exclusions legitimately owing to the state including the inability to execute lawful commitments from human rights guidelines. O ne could contend that the idea of â€Å"persecution†, generally utilized with regards to evacuee developments, concurs in any event incompletely 6 http://www. creek. edu/idp,Borton et al. 2005, Holbrooke 2000, OCHA 2003 5 ith circumstances of human rights infringement: danger to life or opportunity in view of race, religion, nationality, political assessment or participation of a specific social gathering. Different genuine human rights infringement, for similar reasons, would likewise comprise mistreatment Disasters: These have regular or human-made starting points. Models incorporate dry spells, floods, quakes or hurricanes, atomic fiascos or starvation. Casualties of calamities are secured by the definition, as they also may become survivors of segregation and other human rights infringement on account of their uprooting. Common or man-made debacles are additionally included in light of the fact that in certain calamities governments react by oppressing or ignoring certain gatherings of casualties on political or ethnic grounds or by disregarding their privileges in different manners. Other: Other potential reasons for inward Displacement can for example incorporate largescale advancement activities, for example, dams worked with no administration endeavor to resettle or remunerate those uprooted. The definition doesn't envelop people who relocate for financial reasons. Be that as it may, people compelled to escape from their homes on account of financial bad form and minimization equivalent to efficient infringement of monetary rights would go under the definition. Behind financial measures, influencing an individual? s work there might be racial, strict or political points or expectations coordinated against a specific gathering. IDP populaces It is exceptionally hard to get exact figures for IDPs since populaces are continually fluctuating: a few IDPs might be getting back while others are escaping, others may occasionally come back to IDP camps to exploit philanthropic guide. While the instance of IDPs in enormous camps, for example, those in Darfur, western Sudan, are moderately all around detailed, it is extremely hard to survey those IDPs who escape to bigger towns and urban areas. It is essential 6 in

Saturday, June 6, 2020

How to Write Descriptive Essay

How to Write Descriptive Essay? Descriptive essay is dedicated to description of the given object, event or case. It should be written with the usage of expressive language in introduction of examples, including comparisons with some other objects; there should also be presented author’s vision of the subject. When you set about writing a descriptive essay, it is necessary to remember that every object, event, or case can be considered in different ways. Therefore, it is necessary to start from some general characteristics of the object, and then proceed to specific features. As for the structure, it should include introduction, main body and conclusion. Introduction must contain short description of the object under consideration and its characteristics. Paragraphs of the body have to include more detailed description of each feature. Finally, conclusion must summarize the provided data. Descriptive essay is one of the most difficult types of essays. It is necessary not to miss any important aspect when you write such essay, any trivial detail, which puts together the general picture. It is necessary to answer the following questions to write your descriptive essay in a proper way: What details of the considered object are chosen? Why were they chosen for its presentation? What features do these details reveal? How are these features compared? What writing techniques were applied? Preparation for descriptive essay writing consists in finding answers to these questions. The work on this essay is closely related to the ability to distinguish significant and shallow features of the object; it is necessary to describe it in strict unity, drawing an integral pattern. Don’t forget to pay attention to the logical organization of your essay – use linking words, follow the necessary structure.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Private Prisons And Its Effects On The United States

This is a relatively new industry and it is startling to imagine how much power they will have in another 30-40 years. They have already managed to manipulate the fourth amendment. At this rate, your simple municipal violation might turn into an arrest record in the future. One possible sign of things to come happened with a Texas man, Jory Enck. He was thrown in jail for allegedly not returning a GED study guide to the public library. The non-profit public interest group, PR Watch, reported in 2012 about a foreboding incident in which CCA had participated in drug raids of an Arizona high school. The local police were provided with drug sniffing dogs by CCA. The school went into a prison style â€Å"lockdown† in which students were forced to line up against the wall and were not allowed to leave the building. This is part of a theme in which private prisons are specifically targeting adolescents to fill their juvenile facilities. There was a perfect example of this corruption with a scandal labeled as â€Å"cash for kids† by the media. Two Pennsylvania judges had accepted approximately $2.6 million in bribes from private juvenile detention centers. In return, those judges increased the number of youths in their facilities by convicting teens for minor offenses that normally would have been thrown out of court. One example was a 15 year old with no prior indiscretions, who spent three months in a boo t camp because she had created a MySpace page which mocked her high school sShow MoreRelatedPrivate Prison And Its Effects On The United States1284 Words   |  6 PagesLobbying As previously stated, private prison companies have to rely on the big prison population in order for them to make money because he main concern of these private corporations that run these facilities is money. Due to this, these companies will do whatever it takes to make sure the prison population increases so they can keep making money. Therefore, the private prison companies will lobby for laws to boost the prison population. Due to this financial motive they will do whatever it takesRead MoreDefining Accreditation675 Words   |  3 Pagessystem in which correctional agencies must comply with under the American Correctional Association. Privatization brings about competition between prisons and jails in the community. As a result, prisons and jails are encouraged to make improvements as deemed necessary. In addition to affecting prisons and jails, accreditation and privatization also has an effect on the professional development of corrections officers. In recent years, the correctional administration has become quite familiar with accreditationRead MoreThe Growing Prison Industrial Complex1700 Words   |  7 Pages The growing Prison Industrial Complex is an intricate web of profit-maximizing business endeavors at the expense of the livelihood of people of color in the continental United States and abroad. With immigration from Mexico and Latin America increasing each year and definitions of who is â€Å"legal† becoming more constricting as the Obama administration cracking down on illegal border crossing, undocumented immigrants are the fastest growing prison population. This research projects aims to look howRead MorePrivatization of American Prisons1661 Words   |  7 Pagesrunning prisons out of the hands of state and federal authorities and contracting it out to private organizations. Along with the drift to privatization is a plethora of research pertaining to the subject taking many different approaches to analyzing the effectiveness. The majority of research focuses on one of three areas. The first questioning whether or not it is cost effective to make the switch. The second being the ethical problems that can and have risen from the privatization of prisons. TheRead MoreThe Incarceration Of The United States1519 Words   |  7 Pagesin recent decades, violent crimes in the United States of America have been on a steady decline, however, the number of people in the United States under some form of correctional control is reaching towering heights and reaching record proportions. In the last thirty years, the incarceration rates in the Unite d States has skyrocketed; the numbers roughly quadrupled from around five hundred thousand to more than 2 million people. (NAACP)In a speech on criminal justice at Columbia University, HillaryRead MorePrivatization Within The Criminal Justice System Essay1510 Words   |  7 Pages The United States has an incarceration problem that personifies issues throughout the entire criminal justice system. The United States, with just 5 percent of the world s population, currently holds 25 percent of the world s prisoners (Khalek). This issue runs deeper than just incarceration; it permeates every level of the criminal justice system, from incarceration to probation. Many states have turned to private institutions in an attempt shed operating costs, while also increasing effectivenessRead MoreAmeric Land Of The Incarcerated1296 Words   |  6 Pagesthe poem The Star Spangled Banner after witnessing the attack on Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy in the War of 1812. The poem was sang to the tune of a well-known British song and eventually, Key’s once amateur patriotic poem became the United States national anthem in which the lyrics strongly symbolize our country’s perseverance and freedom. The Star Spangled Banner can be heard at a variety gathering s such as official military functions and sporting events where celebrity singers oftenRead MoreMass Incarceration Of The United States1417 Words   |  6 Pagesleap in time typically served for crimes in America’s society? Either the justice system was too lenient in the past, or the justice system is too strict now. Have we just now realized the real gravity of murder, or are we now overreacting? The United States currently over-incarcerates its citizens, prisoners have become part of the economy, manufacturing and assembling products for major corporations. Based on the research, it would be unethical to continue a trend of mass incarceration when the conditionsRead MorePrison Overcrowding : The United States1535 Words   |  7 Pages 2017 Prison Overcrowding The United States has the highest number of incarcerated individuals than other countries. Offenders are arrested every day for minor and major offences such as murder. America is hard on crime. When someone breaks the law the criminal justice’s system seeks an eye for an eye. Prison overcrowding has become a major problem in the United States, it is very expensive to house an inmate and there are other methods to punish offenders without sending them to prison for extendedRead MoreThe Prison Industrial Complex Is The Economic Interrelation Between Private Prisons And Various Public1748 Words   |  7 PagesThe prison-industrial complex is the economic interrelation between private prisons and various public and private job sectors that have become dependent on the expansion of the private prison system. A partial list of these sectors includes construction, pharmaceuticals, and law enforcement, including probation and parole. The prison-industrial complex also runs a cheap inmate labor force for various corporations. Approximately 2,266,800 adults are currently imprisoned in America. In addition to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay Readers Sympathies in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein

Readers Sympathies in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Frankenstein a gothic horror, written by Mary Shelley in 1818, can be interpreted as a subtle autobiography; whose narrative reflects on the characters throughout the story. It was written at the time where the Romantic period replaced the age of reason, the time where dreams and ideas replaced logic and science. The two main characters in the story, Victor and the monster are used as metaphors for this. Shelley uses them to make social and personal comments about the time when the book was written. Shellys mother died only nine days after her birth. At the beginning of the novel, Victors mother dies and Safia also has no mother. Waltons diary†¦show more content†¦Victors parents bestowed love and affection on him. By the end of the novel, Victor is considered to be a bad person who lacks human qualities. This quote does not relate to Shellys childhood, as she did not have a happy one as it was plagued with misery. The monster however brought himself into the world by nature. After Victor deserted him immediately after his creation the monster was left to look after himself. Unlike Victor he was shown no examples or given any rules. Part of the debate at the time the novel was written was which was better: nature or nurture. After being abandoned by Victor and rejected by society, the monster flees to the woods and brings himself up by learning from nature the elements, senses and English language: I found a fire and was overcome with delight at the warmth I experienced from it. In my joy I thrust my hand into the live embers, but quickly withdrew it again with a cry of pain As the monster had no one to teach him he did not know about fire and was surprised when it burnt him; he learnt from nature. At first, the monsterShow MoreRelatedSympathy And Sympathy In Frankenstein1525 Words   |  7 PagesTo be able to feel sympathy, humans first must be able to read into and understand another’s emotions. Mary Shelley uses this human aspect in her novel Frankenstein, as readers’ emotions are played. Set in the early 1900s, the novel is a recount of Victor Frankenstein’s life as he tells it to Robert Walter, a man leading an exploration to the North Pole. Frankenstein starts his narrative explaining how he was a very curious child, and eventually went off to college and conducted an experiment onRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1589 Words   |  7 PagesExtended Response (Q2) - Frankenstein By Mary Shelley Rachel .Corrie The perspective, from which a story is told, causes an influential response from readers to certain issues, characters and conflicts that are found in literary texts. Mary Shelley’s gothic novel, Frankenstein, was published in 1818 and tells the story of a scientist known as Victor Frankenstein who reanimates life in an unethical science experiment. In this novel Walton, Victor and the creature tell their sideRead MoreMary Shelley s Use Of Point Of View1467 Words   |  6 PagesJoyner English IV Honors 17 December 2015 Mary Shelley’s Use of Point of View Mary Shelley uses point of view in Frankenstein to naturally develop her reader’s opinions and feelings in regards to her characters. Shelley forms her own Chinese Box structure along with a frame narrative stirred together to give the nature of stories within stories in a completely unique way (Narrative Technique in Frankenstein). When Shelley’s readers interpret Frankenstein, they tend to have mixed feelings when viewingRead More Comparison between Characters of Frankenstein Essay1513 Words   |  7 Pagesbetween Characters of Frankenstein      Ã‚  Ã‚   In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley combines three separate stories involving three different characters--Walton, Victor, and Frankensteins monster. Though the reader is hearing the stories through Waltons perspective, Walton strives for accuracy in relating the details, as he says, I have resolved every night, record, as nearly as possible in his [Victors] own words, what he has related during the day (Shelley 37). Shelleys shift in point of viewRead MoreIn The Year Of 1818, Author Mary Shelley Published A Novel1568 Words   |  7 PagesIn the year of 1818, author Mary Shelley published a novel that depicted a concept nobody has ever seen before. The novel of Frankenstein is well known for its association with mystery, evil, and romanticism but the question many people ask is, why is it still relevant after all of these years? Frankenstein is a fictional story and is known as â€Å"The Modern Prometheus†. In Greek mythology, a titan named Prometheus stole fire fr om the Gods and gave it to mankind. Being that, Victor is compared to theRead More Is Frankenstein a Creature or Monster? Essay2170 Words   |  9 PagesIs Frankenstein a Creature or Monster? Whether Frankensteins creation is a creature or indeed a monster is a key factor of the novel as a whole. Mary Shelley successfully uses language to create and manipulate the readers opinion of this nameless creation. Frankenstein is from a well respected and well educated family; my family is one of the most distinguished of that republic. This immediately gives the reader the impression that he will be a benevolent character. The reader feelsRead MoreAnalysis of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay1720 Words   |  7 PagesAnalysis of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Analyzing a book can be a killer. Especially when it contains tons of subtle little messages and hints that are not picked up unless one really dissects the material. Mary Shelleys Frankenstein is a prime example. It is analyzed by scholars all the time because of the subtle messages it sends through its themes, one of which needs to be discussed that is called Romanticism. Romanticism dealt with simplifying things as a break from the previous age whichRead MoreMary Shelley s `` Golden ``1339 Words   |  6 PagesMary Shelley’s â€Å"Golden† Trio Many deem multi-narrative stories a novelty, and difficult to pull off without sounding kitschy or clichà ©. This is not so in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. The book includes both a framing device (a story within a story) and epistolary narration (a story told through someone reading or hearing it.) Yet, the effect that comes with these strategies of narration is quite different from the boy/girl chapter switch we see so often in modern literature. 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Egoism and Altruism free essay sample

The term â€Å"meta† means after or beyond, and, consequently, the notion of metaethics involves a removed, or bird’s eye view of the entire project of ethics. We may define metaethics as the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts. When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy. It covers issues from moral semantics to moral epistemology[-gt;0]. Two issues, though, are prominent: (1) metaphysical issues concerning whether morality exists independently of humans, and (2) psychological issues concerning the underlying mental basis of our moral judgments and conduct. a. Metaphysical Issues: Objectivism and Relativism Metaphysics is the study of the kinds of things that exist in the universe. Some things in the universe are made of physical stuff, such as rocks; and perhaps other things are nonphysical in nature, such as thoughts, spirits, and gods. The metaphysical component of metaethics involves discovering specifically whether moral values are eternal truths that exist in a spirit-like realm, or simply human conventions. There are two general directions that discussions of this topic take, one other-worldly and one this-worldly. Proponents of the other-worldly view typically hold that moral values are objective[-gt;1] in the sense that they exist in a spirit-like realm beyond subjective human conventions. They also hold that they are absolute, or eternal, in that they never change, and also that they are universal insofar as they apply to all rational creatures around the world and throughout time[-gt;2]. The most dramatic example of this view is Plato[-gt;3], who was inspired by the field of mathematics. When we look at numbers and mathematical relations, such as 1+1=2, they seem to be timeless concepts that never change, and apply everywhere in the universe. Humans do not invent numbers, and humans cannot alter them. Plato explained the eternal character of mathematics by stating that they are abstract entities that exist in a spirit-like realm. He noted that moral values also are absolute truths and thus are also abstract, spirit-like entities. In this sense, for Plato, moral values are spiritual objects. Medieval philosophers commonly grouped all moral principles together under the heading of â€Å"eternal law† which were also frequently seen as spirit-like objects. 17th century British philosopher Samuel Clarke described them as spirit-like relationships rather than spirit-like objects. In either case, though, they exist in a sprit-like realm. A different other-worldly approach to the metaphysical status of morality is divine commands issuing from God’s will. Sometimes called voluntarism (or divine command theory[-gt;4]), this view was inspired by the notion of an all-powerful God[-gt;5] who is in control of everything. God simply wills things, and they become reality. He wills the physical world into existence, he wills human life into existence and, similarly, he wills all moral values into existence. Proponents of this view, such as medieval philosopher William of Ockham[-gt;6], believe that God wills moral principles, such as â€Å"murder is wrong,† and these exist in God’s mind as commands. God informs humans of these commands by implanting us with moral intuitions or revealing these commands in scripture. The second and more this-worldly approach to the metaphysical status of morality follows in the skeptical philosophical tradition, such as that articulated by Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, and denies the objective status of moral values. Technically, skeptics did not reject moral values themselves, but only denied that values exist as spirit-like objects, or as divine commands in the mind of God. Moral values, they argued, are strictly human inventions, a position that has since been called moral relativism[-gt;7]. There are two distinct forms of moral relativism. The first is individual relativism, which holds that individual people create their own moral standards. Friedrich Nietzsche, for example, argued that the superhuman creates his or her morality distinct from and in reaction to the slave-like value system of the masses. The second is cultural relativism which maintains that morality is grounded in the approval of one’s society – and not simply in the preferences of individual people. This view was advocated by Sextus, and in more recent centuries by Michel Montaigne and William Graham Sumner. In addition to espousing skepticism and relativism, this-worldly approaches to the metaphysical status of morality deny the absolute and universal nature of morality and hold instead that moral values in fact change from society to society throughout time and throughout the world. They frequently attempt to defend their position by citing examples of values that differ dramatically from one culture to another, such as attitudes about polygamy, homosexuality and human sacrifice. b. Psychological Issues in Metaethics A second area of metaethics involves the psychological basis of our moral judgments and conduct, particularly understanding what motivates us to be moral. We might explore this subject by asking the simple question, â€Å"Why be moral? † Even if I am aware of basic moral standards, such as don’t kill and don’t steal, this does not necessarily mean that I will be psychologically compelled to act on them. Some answers to the question â€Å"Why be moral? † are to avoid punishment, to gain praise[-gt;8], to attain happiness, to be dignified, or to fit in with society. i. Egoism and Altruism One important area of moral psychology concerns the inherent selfishness of humans. 17th century British philosopher Thomas Hobbes[-gt;9] held that many, if not all, of our actions are prompted by selfish desires. Even if an action seems selfless, such as donating to charity, there are still selfish causes for this, such as experiencing power over other people. This view is called psychological egoism[-gt;10] and maintains that self-oriented interests ultimately motivate all human actions. Closely related to psychological egoism is a view called psychological hedonism which is the view that pleasure is the specific driving force behind all of our actions. 18th century British philosopher Joseph Butler[-gt;11] agreed that instinctive selfishness and pleasure prompt much of our conduct. However, Butler argued that we also have an inherent psychological capacity to show benevolence to others. This view is called psychological altruism and maintains that at least some of our actions are motivated by instinctive benevolence. ii. Emotion and Reason A second area of moral psychology involves a dispute concerning the role of reason in motivating moral actions. If, for example, I make the statement â€Å"abortion is morally wrong,† am I making a rational assessment or only expressing my feelings? On the one side of the dispute, 18th century British philosopher David Hume[-gt;12] argued that moral assessments involve our emotions, and not our reason. We can amass all the reasons we want, but that alone will not constitute a moral assessment. We need a distinctly emotional reaction in order to make a moral pronouncement. Reason might be of service in giving us the relevant data, but, in Hume’s words, â€Å"reason is, and ought to be, the slave of the passions. † Inspired by Hume’s anti-rationalist views, some 20th century philosophers, most notably A. J. Ayer, similarly denied that moral assessments are factual descriptions. For example, although the statement â€Å"it is good to donate to charity† may on the surface look as though it is a factual description about charity, it is not. Instead, a moral utterance like this involves two things. First, I (the speaker) I am expressing my personal feelings of approval about charitable donations and I am in essence saying â€Å"Hooray for charity! † This is called the emotive element insofar as I am expressing my emotions about some specific behavior. Second, I (the speaker) am trying to get you to donate to charity and am essentially giving the command, â€Å"Donate to charity! † This is called the prescriptive element in the sense that I am prescribing some specific behavior. From Hume’s day forward, more rationally-minded philosophers have opposed these emotive theories of ethics (see non-cognitivism in ethics[-gt;13]) and instead argued that moral assessments are indeed acts of reason. 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant[-gt;14] is a case in point. Although emotional factors often do influence our conduct, he argued, we should nevertheless resist that kind of sway. Instead, true moral action is motivated only by reason when it is free from emotions and desires. A recent rationalist approach, offered by Kurt Baier (1958), was proposed in direct opposition to the emotivist and prescriptivist theories of Ayer and others. Baier focuses more broadly on the reasoning and argumentation process that takes place when making moral choices. All of our moral choices are, or at least can be, backed by some reason or justification. If I claim that it is wrong to steal someone’s car, then I should be able to justify my claim with some kind of argument. For example, I could argue that stealing Smith’s car is wrong since this would upset her, violate her ownership rights, or put the thief at risk of getting caught. According to Baier, then, proper moral decision making involves giving the best reasons in support of one course of action versus another. iii. Male and Female Morality A third area of moral psychology focuses on whether there is a distinctly female approach to ethics that is grounded in the psychological differences between men and women. Discussions of this issue focus on two claims: (1) traditional morality is male-centered, and (2) there is a unique female perspective of the world which can be shaped into a value theory. According to many feminist philosophers, traditional morality is male-centered since it is modeled after practices that have been traditionally male-dominated, such as acquiring property, engaging in business contracts, and governing societies. The rigid systems of rules required for trade and government were then taken as models for the creation of equally rigid systems of moral rules, such as lists of rights and duties. Women, by contrast, have traditionally had a nurturing role by raising children and overseeing domestic life. These tasks require less rule following, and more spontaneous and creative action. Using the woman’s experience as a model for moral theory, then, the basis of morality would be spontaneously caring for others as would be appropriate in each unique circumstance. On this model, the agent becomes part of the situation and acts caringly within that context. This stands in contrast with male-modeled morality where the agent is a mechanical actor who performs his required duty, but can remain distanced from and unaffected by the situation. A care-based approach to morality, as it is sometimes called, is offered by feminist ethicists as either a replacement for or a supplement to traditional male-modeled moral systems. . Normative Ethics Normative ethics involves arriving at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct. In a sense, it is a search for an ideal litmus test of proper behavior. The Golden Rule is a classic example of a normative principle: We should do to others what we would want others to do to us. Since I do not want my neighbor to steal m y car, then it is wrong for me to steal her car. Since I would want people to feed me if I was starving, then I should help feed starving people. Using this same reasoning, I can theoretically determine whether any possible action is right or wrong. So, based on the Golden Rule, it would also be wrong for me to lie to, harass, victimize, assault, or kill others. The Golden Rule is an example of a normative theory that establishes a single principle against which we judge all actions. Other normative theories focus on a set of foundational principles, or a set of good character traits. The key assumption in normative ethics is that there is only one ultimate criterion of moral conduct, whether it is a single rule or a set of principles. Three strategies will be noted here: (1) virtue theories, (2) duty theories, and (3) consequentialist theories. . Virtue Theories Many philosophers believe that morality consists of following precisely defined rules of conduct, such as â€Å"don’t kill,† or â€Å"don’t steal. † Presumably, I must learn these rules, and then make sure each of my actions live up to the rules. Virtue ethics[-gt;15], however, places less emphasis on learning rules, and instead stresses the importance of developing good habits of character, such as benevolence (see moral character[-gt;16]). Once I’ve acquired benevolence, for example, I will then habitually act in a benevolent manner. Historically, virtue theory is one of the oldest normative traditions in Western philosophy, having its roots in ancient Greek civilization. Plato emphasized four virtues in particular, which were later called cardinal virtues: wisdom, courage, temperance and justice. Other important virtues are fortitude, generosity, self-respect, good temper, and sincerity. In addition to advocating good habits of character, virtue theorists hold that we should avoid acquiring bad character traits, or vices, such as cowardice, insensibility, injustice, and vanity. Virtue theory emphasizes moral education since virtuous character traits are developed in one’s youth. Adults, therefore, are responsible for instilling virtues in the young. Aristotle[-gt;17] argued that virtues are good habits that we acquire, which regulate our emotions. For example, in response to my natural feelings of fear, I should develop the virtue of courage which allows me to be firm when facing danger. Analyzing 11 specific virtues, Aristotle argued that most virtues fall at a mean between more extreme character traits. With courage, for example, if I do not have enough courage, I develop the disposition of cowardice, which is a vice. If I have too much courage I develop the disposition of rashness which is also a vice. According to Aristotle, it is not an easy task to find the perfect mean between extreme character traits. In fact, we need assistance from our reason to do this. After Aristotle, medieval theologians supplemented Greek lists of virtues with three Christian ones, or theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity. Interest in virtue theory continued through the middle ages and declined in the 19th century with the rise of alternative moral theories below. In the mid 20th century virtue theory received special attention from philosophers who believed that more recent approaches ethical theories were misguided for focusing too heavily on rules and actions, rather than on virtuous character traits. Alasdaire MacIntyre (1984) defended the central role of virtues in moral theory and argued that virtues are grounded in and emerge from within social traditions. . Duty Theories Many of us feel that there are clear obligations we have as human beings, such as to care for our children, and to not commit murder. Duty theories base morality on specific, foundational principles of obligation. These theories are sometimes called deontological, from the Greek word deon, or duty, in view of the foundational nature of our duty or obligation. They are also sometimes called nonconsequentialist since these princi ples are obligatory, irrespective of the consequences that might follow from our actions. For example, it is wrong to not care for our children even if it results in some great benefit, such as financial savings. There are four central duty theories. The first is that championed by 17th century German philosopher Samuel Pufendorf, who classified dozens of duties under three headings: duties to God, duties to oneself, and duties to others. Concerning our duties towards God, he argued that there are two kinds: a theoretical duty to know the existence and nature of God, and a practical duty to both inwardly and outwardly worship God. Concerning our duties towards oneself, these are also of two sorts: duties of the soul, which involve developing one’s skills and talents, and duties of the body, which involve not harming our bodies, as we might through gluttony or drunkenness, and not killing oneself. Concerning our duties towards others, Pufendorf divides these between absolute duties, which are universally binding on people, and conditional duties, which are the result of contracts between people. Absolute duties are of three sorts: avoid wronging others, treat people as equals, and romote the good of others. Conditional duties involve various types of agreements, the principal one of which is the duty is to keep one’s promises. A second duty-based approach to ethics is rights theory. Most generally, a â€Å"right† is a justified claim against another person’s behavior – such as my right to not be harmed by you (see also human rights[-gt;18]). Rights and duties are related in su ch a way that the rights of one person implies the duties of another person. For example, if I have a right to payment of $10 by Smith, then Smith has a duty to pay me $10. This is called the correlativity of rights and duties. The most influential early account of rights theory is that of 17th century British philosopher John Locke[-gt;19], who argued that the laws of nature mandate that we should not harm anyone’s life, health, liberty or possessions. For Locke, these are our natural rights, given to us by God. Following Locke, the United States Declaration of Independence authored by Thomas Jefferson recognizes three foundational rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Jefferson and others rights theorists maintained that we deduce other more specific rights from these, including the rights of property, movement, speech, and religious expression. There are four features traditionally associated with moral rights. First, rights are natural insofar as they are not invented or created by governments. Second, they are universal insofar as they do not change from country to country. Third, they are equal in the sense that rights are the same for all people, irrespective of gender, race, or handicap. Fourth, they are inalienable which means that I ca not hand over my rights to another person, such as by selling myself into slavery. A third duty-based theory is that by Kant, which emphasizes a single principle of duty. Influenced by Pufendorf, Kant agreed that we have moral duties to oneself and others, such as developing one’s talents, and keeping our promises to others. However, Kant argued that there is a more foundational principle of duty that encompasses our particular duties. It is a single, self-evident principle of reason that he calls the â€Å"categorical imperative. A categorical imperative, he argued, is fundamentally different from hypothetical imperatives that hinge on some personal desire that we have, for example, â€Å"If you want to get a good job, then you ought to go to college. † By contrast, a categorical imperative simply mandates an action, irrespective of one’s personal desires, such as â€Å"You ought to do X. † Kant gives at least four versions of the categorical imperative, but one is especially direct: Treat people as an end, and never as a means to an end. That is, we should always treat people with dignity, nd never use them as mere instruments. For Kant, we treat people as an end whenever our actions toward someone reflect the inherent value of that person. Donating to charity, for example, is morally correct since this acknowledges the inherent value of the recipient. By contrast, we treat someone as a means to an end whenever we treat that person as a tool to achieve something else. It is wrong, for ex ample, to steal my neighbor’s car since I would be treating her as a means to my own happiness. The categorical imperative also regulates the morality of actions that affect us individually. Suicide, for example, would be wrong since I would be treating my life as a means to the alleviation of my misery. Kant believes that the morality of all actions can be determined by appealing to this single principle of duty. A fourth and more recent duty-based theory is that by British philosopher W. D. Ross, which emphasizes prima facie duties. Like his 17th and 18th century counterparts, Ross argues that our duties are â€Å"part of the fundamental nature of the universe. † However, Ross’s list of duties is much shorter, which he believes reflects our actual moral convictions:  ·Fidelity: the duty to keep promises Reparation: the duty to compensate others when we harm them  ·Gratitude: the duty to thank those who help us  ·Justice: the duty to recognize merit  ·Beneficence: the duty to improve the conditions of others  ·Self-improvement: the duty to improve our virtue and intelligence  ·Nonmaleficence: the duty to not injure others Ross recognizes that s ituations will arise when we must choose between two conflicting duties. In a classic example, suppose I borrow my neighbor’s gun and promise to return it when he asks for it. One day, in a fit of rage, my neighbor pounds on my door and asks for the gun so that he can take vengeance on someone. On the one hand, the duty of fidelity obligates me to return the gun; on the other hand, the duty of nonmaleficence obligates me to avoid injuring others and thus not return the gun. According to Ross, I will intuitively know which of these duties is my actual duty, and which is my apparent or prima facie duty. In this case, my duty of nonmaleficence emerges as my actual duty and I should not return the gun. c. Consequentialist Theories It is common for us to determine our moral responsibility by weighing the consequences of our actions. According to consequentialism[-gt;20], correct moral conduct is determined solely by a cost-benefit analysis of an action’s consequences: Consequentialism: An action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable. Consequentialist normative principles require that we first tally both the good and bad consequences of an action. Second, we then determine whether the total good consequences outweigh the total bad consequences. If the good consequences are greater, then the action is morally proper. If the bad consequences are greater, then the action is morally improper. Consequentialist theories are sometimes called teleological theories, from the Greek word telos, or end, since the end result of the action is the sole determining factor of its morality. Consequentialist theories became popular in the 18th century by philosophers who wanted a quick way to morally assess an action by appealing to experience, rather than by appealing to gut intuitions or long lists of questionable duties. In fact, the most attractive feature of consequentialism is that it appeals to publicly observable consequences of actions. Most versions of consequentialism are more precisely formulated than the general principle above. In particular, competing consequentialist theories specify which consequences for affected groups of people are relevant. Three subdivisions of consequentialism emerge:  ·Ethical Egoism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable only to the agent performing the action.  ·Ethical Altruism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone except the agent. Utilitarianism: an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone. All three of these theories focus on the consequences of actions for different groups of people. But, like all normative theories, the above three theories are rivals of each other. They also yield different conclusions. Consider the following example. A woman was traveling through a developing country when she witnessed a car in front of her run off the road and roll over several times. She asked the hired driver to pull over to assist, but, to her surprise, the driver accelerated nervously past the scene. A few miles down the road the driver explained that in his country if someone assists an accident victim, then the police often hold the assisting person responsible for the accident itself. If the victim dies, then the assisting person could be held responsible for the death. The driver continued explaining that road accident victims are therefore usually left unattended and often die from exposure to the country’s harsh desert conditions. On the principle of ethical egoism[-gt;21], the woman in this illustration would only be concerned with the consequences of her attempted assistance as she would be affected. Clearly, the decision to drive on would be the morally proper choice. On the principle of ethical altruism, she would be concerned only with the consequences of her action as others are affected, particularly the accident victim. Tallying only those consequences reveals that assisting the victim would be the morally correct choice, irrespective of the negative consequences that result for her. On the principle of utilitarianism, she must consider the consequences for both herself and the victim. The outcome here is less clear, and the woman would need to precisely calculate the overall benefit versus disbenefit of her action. i. Types of Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham[-gt;22] presented one of the earliest fully developed systems of utilitarianism. Two features of his theory are noteworty. First, Bentham proposed that we tally the consequences of each action we perform and thereby determine on a case by case basis whether an action is morally right or wrong. This aspect of Bentham’s theory is known as act-utilitiarianism. Second, Bentham also proposed that we tally the pleasure and pain which results from our actions. For Bentham, pleasure and pain are the only consequences that matter in determining whether our conduct is moral. This aspect of Bentham’s theory is known as hedonistic utilitarianism. Critics point out limitations in both of these aspects. First, according to act-utilitarianism, it would be morally wrong to waste time on leisure activities such as watching television, since our time could be spent in ways that produced a greater social benefit, such as charity work. But prohibiting leisure activities doesn’t seem reasonable. More significantly, according to act-utilitarianism, specific acts of torture or slavery would be morally permissible if the social benefit of these actions outweighed the disbenefit. A revised version of utilitarianism called rule-utilitarianism addresses these problems. According to rule-utilitarianism, a behavioral code or rule is morally right if the consequences of adopting that rule are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone. Unlike act utilitarianism, which weighs the consequences of each particular action, rule-utilitarianism offers a litmus test only for the morality of moral rules, such as â€Å"stealing is wrong. Adopting a rule against theft clearly has more favorable consequences than unfavorable consequences for everyone. The same is true for moral rules against lying or murdering. Rule-utilitarianism, then, offers a three-tiered method for judging conduct. A particular action, such as stealing my neighbor’s car, is judged wrong since it violates a moral ru le against theft. In turn, the rule against theft is morally binding because adopting this rule produces favorable consequences for everyone. John Stuart Mill’s version of utilitarianism is rule-oriented. Second, according to hedonistic utilitarianism, pleasurable consequences are the only factors that matter, morally speaking. This, though, seems too restrictive since it ignores other morally significant consequences that are not necessarily pleasing or painful. For example, acts which foster loyalty and friendship are valued, yet they are not always pleasing. In response to this problem, G. E. Moore [-gt;23]proposed ideal utilitarianism, which involves tallying any consequence that we intuitively recognize as good or bad (and not simply as pleasurable or painful). Also, R. M. Hare proposed preference utilitarianism, which involves tallying any consequence that fulfills our preferences. ii. Ethical Egoism and Social Contract Theory We have seen (in Section 1. b. i) that Hobbes was an advocate of the methaethical theory of psychological egoism—the view that all of our actions are selfishly motivated. Upon that foundation, Hobbes developed a normative theory known as social contract theory[-gt;24], which is a type of rule-ethical-egoism. According to Hobbes, for purely selfish reasons, the agent is better off living in a world with moral rules than one without moral rules. For without moral rules, we are subject to the whims of other people’s selfish interests. Our property, our families, and even our lives are at continual risk. Selfishness alone will therefore motivate each agent to adopt a basic set of rules which will allow for a civilized community. Not surprisingly, these rules would include prohibitions against lying, stealing and killing. However, these rules will ensure safety for each agent only if the rules are enforced. As selfish creatures, each of us would plunder our neighbors’ property once their guards were down. Each agent would then be at risk from his neighbor. Therefore, for selfish reasons alone, we devise a means of enforcing these rules: we create a policing agency which punishes us if we violate these rules. 3. Applied Ethics Applied ethics is the branch of ethics which consists of the analysis of specific, controversial moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, or euthanasia. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics[-gt;25], and sexual ethics[-gt;26]. Generally speaking, two features are necessary for an issue to be considered an â€Å"applied ethical issue. † First, the issue needs to be controversial in the sense that there are significant groups of people both for and against the issue at hand. The issue of drive-by shooting, for example, is not an applied ethical issue, since everyone agrees that this practice is grossly immoral. By contrast, the issue of gun control would be an applied ethical issue since there are significant groups of people both for and against gun control. The second requirement for an issue to be an applied ethical issue is that it must be a distinctly moral issue. On any given day, the media presents us with an array of sensitive issues such as affirmative action policies, gays in the military, involuntary commitment of the mentally impaired, capitalistic versus socialistic business practices, public versus private health care systems, or energy conservation. Although all of these issues are controversial and have an important impact on society, they are not all moral issues. Some are only issues of social policy. The aim of social policy is to help make a given society run efficiently by devising conventions, such as traffic laws, tax laws, and zoning codes. Moral issues, by contrast, concern more universally obligatory practices, such as our duty to avoid lying, and are not confined to individual societies. Frequently, issues of social policy and morality overlap, as with murder which is both socially prohibited and immoral. However, the two groups of issues are often distinct. For example, many people would argue that sexual promiscuity is mmoral, but may not feel that there should be social policies regulating sexual conduct, or laws punishing us for promiscuity. Similarly, some social policies forbid residents in certain neighborhoods from having yard sales. But, so long as the neighbors are not offended, there is nothing immoral in itself about a resident having a yard sale in one of these neighborhoods. Thus, to qualify as an applied ethical issue, the issue must be more than one of mer e social policy: it must be morally relevant as well. In theory, resolving particular applied ethical issues should be easy. With the issue of abortion, for example, we would simply determine its morality by consulting our normative principle of choice, such as act-utilitarianism. If a given abortion produces greater benefit than disbenefit, then, according to act-utilitarianism, it would be morally acceptable to have the abortion. Unfortunately, there are perhaps hundreds of rival normative principles from which to choose, many of which yield opposite conclusions. Thus, the stalemate in normative ethics between conflicting theories prevents us from using a single decisive procedure for determining the morality of a specific issue. The usual solution today to this stalemate is to consult several representative normative principles on a given issue and see where the weight of the evidence lies. a. Normative Principles in Applied Ethics Arriving at a short list of representative normative principles is itself a challenging task. The principles selected must not be too narrowly focused, such as a version of act-egoism that might focus only on an action’s short-term benefit. The principles must also be seen as having merit by people on both sides of an applied ethical issue. For this reason, principles that appeal to duty to God are not usually cited since this would have no impact on a nonbeliever engaged in the debate. The following principles are the ones most commonly appealed to in applied ethical discussions:  ·Personal benefit: acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for the individual in question.  ·Social benefit: acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for society.  ·Principle of benevolence: help those in need. Principle of paternalism: assist others in pursuing their best interests when they cannot do so themselves.  ·Principle of harm: do not harm others.  ·Principle of honesty: do not deceive others.  ·Principle of lawfulness: do not violate the law.  ·Principle of autonomy: acknowledge a person’s freedom over his/her actions or physical body.  ·Principle of justice: acknowledge a person’s right to due process, fair compensation for harm done , and fair distribution of benefits.  ·Rights: acknowledge a person’s rights to life, information, privacy, free expression, and safety. The above principles represent a spectrum of traditional normative principles and are derived from both consequentialist and duty-based approaches. The first two principles, personal benefit and social benefit, are consequentialist since they appeal to the consequences of an action as it affects the individual or society. The remaining principles are duty-based. The principles of benevolence, paternalism, harm, honesty, and lawfulness are based on duties we have toward others. The principles of autonomy, justice, and the various rights are based on moral rights. An example will help illustrate the function of these principles in an applied ethical discussion. In 1982, a couple from Bloomington, Indiana gave birth to a baby with severe mental and physical disabilities. Among other complications, the infant, known as Baby Doe, had its stomach disconnected from its throat and was thus unable to receive nourishment. Although this stomach deformity was correctable through surgery, the couple did not want to raise a severely disabled child and therefore chose to deny surgery, food, and water for the infant. Local courts supported the parents’ decision, and six days later Baby Doe died. Should corrective surgery have been performed for Baby Doe? Arguments in favor of corrective surgery derive from the infant’s right to life and the principle of paternalism which stipulates that we should pursue the best interests of others when they are incapable of doing so themselves. Arguments against corrective surgery derive from the personal and social disbenefit which would result from such surgery. If Baby Doe survived, its quality of life would have been poor and in any case it probably would have died at an early age. Also, from the parent’s perspective, Baby Doe’s survival would have been a significant emotional and financial burden. When examining both sides of the issue, the parents and the courts concluded that the arguments against surgery were stronger than the arguments for surgery. First, foregoing surgery appeared to be in the best interests of the infant, given the poor quality of life it would endure. Second, the status of Baby Doe’s right to life was not clear given the severity of the infant’s mental impairment. For, to possess moral rights, it takes more than merely having a human body: certain cognitive functions must also be present. The issue here involves what is often referred to as moral personhood, and is central to many applied ethical discussions. b. Issues in Applied Ethics As noted, there are many controversial issues discussed by ethicists today, some of which will be briefly mentioned here. Biomedical ethics focuses on a range of issues which arise in clinical settings. Health care workers are in an unusual position of continually dealing with life and death situations. It is not surprising, then, that medical ethics issues are more extreme and diverse than other areas of applied ethics. Prenatal issues arise about the morality of surrogate mothering, genetic manipulation of fetuses, the status of unused frozen embryos, and abortion. Other issues arise about patient rights and physician’s responsibilities, such as the confidentiality of the patient’s records and the physician’s responsibility to tell the truth to dying patients. The AIDS crisis has raised the specific issues of the mandatory screening of all patients for AIDS, and whether physicians can refuse to treat AIDS patients. Additional issues concern medical experimentation on humans, the morality of involuntary commitment, and the rights of the mentally disabled. Finally, end of life issues arise about the morality of suicide, the justifiability of suicide intervention, physician assisted suicide, and euthanasia. The field of business ethics examines moral controversies relating to the social responsibilities of capitalist business practices, the moral status of corporate entities, deceptive advertising, insider trading, basic employee rights, job discrimination, affirmative action, drug testing, and whistle blowing. Issues in environmental ethics often overlaps with business and medical issues. These include the rights of animals, the morality of animal experimentation, preserving endangered species, pollution control, management of environmental resources, whether eco-systems are entitled to direct moral consideration, and our obligation to future generations. Controversial issues of sexual morality include monogamy versus polygamy, sexual relations without love, homosexual relations, and extramarital affairs. Finally, there are issues of social morality which examine capital punishment, nuclear war, gun control, the recreational use of drugs, welfare rights, and racism.